In the United States of America published a book "101 most influential non-existent person." Its authors - Jeremy Salter, Allan Lazar, Dan Karlan and - tells the story of the most influential fictional characters. What do you think, who is leading the list, the most popular myths of our time? Oddly enough, this is none other than macho native of America, the famous Marlboro Man, who became something of a national symbol of the United States. His name he inherited from his famous Count, a military genius, a talented politician and diplomat John Churchill - the first Duke of Marlborough. The creator of Philip Morris brand was confident that his product should be different refined, but having sufficient weight to the title. For the idea had not far to seek: in the middle of the 20th century a very popular figure in the world was a prominent politician, Winston Churchill, who compared with the famous Count. Winston Churchill was born November 30, 1874 in Blenheim Palace, the ancestral estate of the aristocratic family of Marlborough (Marlborough).
Blenheim Palace family of Marlborough
Philip Morris had in mind the noble sound of the word, but that's writing itself was too complex and cumbersome - Marlborough. Because he decided to get rid of a little blood - cut a word, removing not pleasing to him a letter. Since then the brand «Marlboro» to cut off the end of the beginning of the procession on the planet.
However, all attempts to gloss and meet certain "elite" image - nothing more than a publicity stunt, which was coined by the best experts on public relations. The thing is that these cigarettes are initially directed their attempts at advertising the fair sex. "Soft as the breeze in May," in the 1920s, the tobacco industry products under the name "Marlboro" placed emphasis on the equality of men and women who follow fashion trends of emancipation. In the 1950s Philip Morris began to think about the need to change course. Not too popular brand tried to save his position, trying to avoid the disastrous results of actions of scientists. The thing is that at that time were released research data Luther Terry, under which he claimed a strong link smoking with lung cancer and chronic bronchitis. Such disclosure has long been feared all the tobacco corporations. And as it turned out, not without reason: in connection with an introduction to such information in 1953 in the U.S. for the first time the history of cigarettes significantly decreased their consumption. Of course, thinking about the health of ordinary American citizens, no one was going. The fact that cigarettes cause great harm to health, the owners of tobacco factories and heard, without any research, but do we know a lot of businessmen who care about something besides the well-being of themselves and their own family? So in this case, the actions were quite predictable. Tobacco companies immediately tried to refute this information, trying to convince Americans of the unreliability of research, and when such a move has not led to expected results, are recklessly accuse competitors in that they produce more harmful varieties. Of course, a large proportion of the charges were accounted for cigarettes, while products with the filter is completely harmless. At that time it was believed that these cigarettes - exclusively female domain, because brand "Marlboro" in this case was left on the horse. However, due to the reduction in cigarette consumption in general, Philip Morris might well fail, but because he urgently needed to teach American males to think that smoking cigarettes without a filter is not shameful. From now on, ladies' tobacco products were to become universal.
In order to cigarettes Concern «Philip Morris International» painlessly and without loss went to unisex, of Chicago was hired by a leading expert on the advertising business - Leo Burnett.
Already at that time he was known as the creator of the popular advertising characters, among them - Jolly Green Giant (obviously, later to become the prototype of the notorious Shrek), Charlie Tuna, the elves and cat Kibler Morris (Is this coincidence by chance the name of the cat family and the founder of the brand " Marlboro? "). Leo Burnett seriously thought about the status quo and made an important decision. We had finally and irrevocably destroy the old image of tobacco products for "ladies, penetrating flavor which confirms the fidelity of male proposition that" Marlboro "- is an aristocrat among the cigarettes." And these things meant to make a difficult act to bright symbol of masculinity. At that time, the images should have been much more than was the result: Burnett believed that on the TV screen to appear brave war correspondent, battered life "sea dog" who loves extreme high-altitude construction. However, the first images concocted - "cowboy - a tamer of the prairie" - conceived an unexpected success. On this basis, and was built which brought such an incredible advertising campaign results.
But the story of the transformation in men's ladies' cigarettes was not so simple: the events that take place behind the scenes, was forced to sweat as the most expert in advertising, and the founder of the concern «Philip Morris International». The fact that in the beginning, Philip Morris is not so much like the idea of Burnett. Determined to find out how it is realistic and voplotima in life, he turned to a group of researchers. Their work is not pleased: it turns out, in the United States at that time remained only about 3,000 professional cowboys. Morris did not believe that the average office worker will associate themselves with such idealistic advertising character. However, the language in Burnett was suspended fine, and psychology, he knew perfectly. Adman was sure that the person needs something bright and fairly remote, so inaccessible, far and near - the image to which it can aspire to. Manly squint bright eyes, bronze tan, sharply defined cheekbones, striking curved field hat, and, of course, the smoke, which is a winding stream tends upwards, the blue sky above the sun-desiccated earth canyon ... In fact, this image - something like a Jungian archetype, firmly entrenched in the minds of many millions of viewers in front row: "Smoking - it's cool."
And Burnett was able to bring these prospects to the administrator: he still managed to break the wall of mistrust, and the guys agreed to a die-hard cowboy image. With this sale «Marlboro» already for a year have grown so much that moved from the last place (then production Concern «Philip Morris International» took less than 1% market share) in fourth in the ranking of sales of tobacco products worldwide, becoming the cigarettes champions. Of course, at that time was not yet known, that filter cigarettes also generate significant health hazard. But there is no particular confidence that it could at least someone would stop if a person has (even on an unconscious level) the decision to destroy yourself, stop it from doing so no one can.
Rumor has it that marks the success was due not only to the way a cowboy. Some experts argue that the case - in particular the composition of cigarettes (which contain urea), conveniently packaged at the time became a sensation (flip-top for the first time appeared on the shelves and was designed to advertise the brand - was required to get a pack from his pocket to open it ) and design (white, like an arrow pierced in red). However, the image of the conqueror of the prairies by chance took first place in the aforementioned book "101 most influential non-existent person" - he trusted in him wanted to be like. The famous Marlboro Man confidently asserted on television that cigarette filters are not able to have any influence on the taste of tobacco (which is actually not in any way is not true): "The filter is not getting between you and the taste." At the same time the creators of advertising forgot to mention that its presence leads to the formation of fairly unpleasant and unhealthy smoke. And it was natural, because the production of cigarettes with filter produces more profits, because the filter material is much cheaper tobacco use (especially if you imagine the volume of products produced). In addition, the filter is able to clear the smoke, changing its flavor, and therefore can be used for the manufacture of cigarette tobacco, low-grade.
Why cowboy believed took his word for truth? It plays a major role psychology of thinking people. In the United States, this image embodied a local spirit, the symbol of the conquest of the world. He was able to hit home, recalling the very same guys who once conquered the wild prairie. Brutality and heroism - that was the basis of an advertising campaign, which was able to reach the hearts as representatives of the beautiful, and the stronger sex, as blacks, and South Americans. And it is no coincidence, since most of the conquerors of the prairies were black or Hispanic. So even the fact that all the "Marlboro men" - whites could not play a significant role here.
Cowboy turned to us, full of confidence: "Welcome to Marlboro Country." The legendary hero of the famous advertising shone in all its glory: it is distilled through the wild herds of horses, the prairie full of dangers, its stunning turbulence flow of the river and rocks, through which move beyond the power even to each mountain goats. But all that he was overweening. Why? According to one very simple reason: in the pocket of a cowboy always lay red and white tutu «Marlboro». Several generations followed him, having learned lights a cigarette and feeling in this little enclosed to his power and glory. These poor guys would like at least a minute to enter the country of rabid Mustangs to feel absolutely free.
Because the images of "sea dog", the builder and others like them put on the backburner. It was decided to concentrate on the conqueror of the prairie. First, the shooting as cowboys were invited well-known male Centerfolds. However, this idea was defeated - they could not even imagine how and what the parties come to a horse to climb on it. Their successors were no less fun: almost perfect vivid image of a brutal man in sun-bleached jeans, heavy boots complemented sad ... Spurs, who were put on upside down. As a result, before the advertising agency was assigned the task is quite clear, is not ready to compromise: should find a real cowboy in Texas or Montana. Which was filled with "a bang".
In 1955, Burnett has decided to "mark" of Marlborough: the hand of the conqueror of the prairie began to show off a tattoo visible in the form of a brand. It has also become the subject of many jokes, but by the sitters. Thus, the known story of one of the actors that make up ahead of filming was applied for three minutes, and a tattoo - not less than three hours!
In 1962, the image of Marlboro has been added another significant stroke. Burnett purchased the rights to the script of the film "The Magnificent Seven" with a single purpose - to advertise the product. This has been added capacious frazochka: "Come to where the real flavor of America, come into the country," Marlborough "!".
Since then, the image of Marlborough rose to such unimaginable heights, that the dangers of smoking and was uncomfortable hint. These cigarettes are now praises in a variety of contemporary songs, for example, "Fort Minor" ("Cigarettes"), earrings ("Invasion"), "Fletlayn" ("In Your House"), "block party" ("Song for Clay" .) A surprise was found hidden advertising "Marlborough" in the film by Leonid Gaidai "Sportloto-82" and "Ivan Vasilyevich Changes His Profession," in the movie by Eldar Ryazanov, "Office Romance".
The infamous "cowboy death" (as did this expression, we will explain later) on the top firmly ingrained in the neighborhood of the most successful advertising images. A cigarette concern "Philip Morris" and still occupy the top row of the most popular, and accordingly, and buy up. Because it is not surprising that when in 1971 the U.S. Congress issued a filing with the Federal Telecommunications Commission Act, which prohibits advertising of tobacco and its products on radio and TV, the cowboy has become such a replicable manner in the advertising of other results of human labor. This is not evidence of his volatility - after all, on television we've never heard a single word from his lips. So to say that he "did not like so-and-so" and thereby betrayed their beliefs, we can not. Cowboy was equally unmoved, gazing thoughtfully into the distance while emitting an incredible self-confidence. It is this image and is associated in our minds with silent smokers.
In 1966 he was made famous movie about a country, "Marlborough". This idea was invented in the early sixties, the above-mentioned agency "Leo Burnett," but only in 1964 it acquired the same type, under which he was brought before us. On the screen appeared a courageous cowboy, a true macho, and it was surrounded by wild American prairies. To date, heavy smokers and the researchers of this issue even started a heated argument, unable to figure out which of the models appeared in this famous movie. After Marlboro cowboy role in those days not only played lazy. Thus, at different times of the famous conqueror of the prairie portrayed baseball players Jim Patton and Charlie Konnerli, actors and models Darrell Winfield, Brad Johnson, Dick Hammer, Bill Dutra, etc.
Another interesting movie «Marlboro 80's». Appearing on the background of open steppe, a cowboy, it is important zasunuvshy hands in his pockets, ceremoniously close to the audience. He is not looking at them, but somewhere over their heads - the conqueror of the prairies occupy a much more important idea than an appeal to their audience. He thoughtfully plays the harmonica. But not for long cowboy delights us with his presence - his name is prairie, and the dark silhouette of far removed, to setting sun. Brutal Marlborough stops and throws up his hat, as if shouting to us: "I am free like a bird in heaven."
No less well known video advertising «Marlboro Light»: free from worries and serious thought cowboys dashing gallop on horseback across the river, romantic vzmetaya sheaves spray. They wield a lasso if to throw a rope around his neck gullible consumer.
In the nineties, videos of dreamland "Marlboro" appeared in the CIS, but cigarette advertising on television was soon banned in our country. But it would be naive to believe that this image will be forgotten. At various times he was mentioned in the song: Paula Cole "Where did all the cowboys?" Mylene Farmer "California", Damian Marley and Kipress Hill, "Buses with hashish." Especially vivid reminder of the successful U.S. advertising image became famous film Simon Uinsera "Harley Davidson and the Marlboro Man." The genre is action packed with elements of comedy. What explains this movie? The action of "Harley Davidson and the Marlboro Man" takes place in the near future at a time films - in 1996, the same United States of America. The plot is plain highly. Biker Harley Davidson and the Marlboro Man, the modern Robin Hoods, they heard that their friend, bar owner, a former rocker, threatening big trouble. The owner of the bank wants to seize illegal institution, shamelessly raising the rent for. Harley and Marlboro are outraged by this - they want to rob a bank collectors. But the lack of information has always been one of the biggest disasters: in an armored car friends are not stacks of dollars and a huge batch of newly invented drug "Crystal Dream". So Harley and Marlboro are in the attention of criminals from the protection of a corrupt banker. When a gang of thugs kills a close buddy of the main characters, they are in the name of honor and justice are beginning to retaliate. The main interest of the films are high-speed bikes, live, dynamic and hard-boiled action advanced weapons.
The large budget allocated to the shooting by "Metro Goldwyn Mayer", allowed to earn a good movie among the counterparts in the genre. It differs in an indescribable sense of humor and the participation of famous actors of the nineties: Mickey Rourke, Tom Sizemore and Don Johnson. But despite the fame part, box-office success of the film did not come. A picture with a budget of $ 23 million was able to collect only $ 7 million in U.S. box office. According to critics, the whole thing - in a bad acting and plot a standard, which is replete with numerous lyapami and stamps. However, whatever they may say, after reel of film to video has become very popular among bikers, having acquired the status of a cult film.
But the film is the film are different. Taken not only of films glorifying the image of the cowboy and the claim of Marlborough as a brutal male with a square jaw, a symbol of American individualism. Out and movies who wanted to open people's eyes to the dangers of smoking.